Case study regions
Case-study regions were homogeneous in terms of biogeographical conditions and farming types. They cover low to medium intensive organic and non-organic farming; very intensive conventional farming, industrial animal production, etc. were not covered. In each region, 14 – 20 farms were selected. In regions containing both organic and non-organic farms, farms of both systems were randomly sampled. In ‘high nature-value farming’ regions (mostly specialist grazing livestock farms), a larger number of farms were screened, and farms were selected along a gradient of livestock density. Indicators were measured according to a standard protocol. The broader applicability of the core indicators was then tested in three case studies in Tunisia, Ukraine and Uganda.